Diets and Nutrition:


There are several different types of diets available medically. They include :






Diabetic Diet  

Weight loss Diet 

Low Fat Diet  

DASH Diet for HTN  

Mediterranean diet  

Renal Diet


For all the above diets there are several common features.


The total daily caloric intake should be similar as below.


For men and pregnant women 15Cal/kg/day


For most women 13 Cal/kg/day


For obese individuals or weight loss diets an intake of 10Cal/kg/day.


Fat intake should be more mono/poly unsaturated fats rather than trans-fats. Small amounts of saturated fats are admissible and it is best to avoid intake of trans fats (found in processed oils used in cooking of baked goods, cookies, chips microwaveable popcorn, frozen pizza crusts, and restaurant fried foods due to partially hydrogenated oils, margarine, etc.)


Cholesterol intake should be less than 300 mg a day


Fiber intake should be more than 14g per 1000 Cal per day.


Salt intake should be less than 2300mg a day.


Several small meals are better than a few large meals.




Variations for each of the diets are as below:


Diabetic Diet


As per the American Diabetes Association guidelines the following are recommended:


A combination of fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, fish, low fat milk, poultry and less red meat intake.


Foods with lower glycemic index are recommended.


Low Fat Diets have a requirement of less than 30% of Cal from fat.


DASH Diet Dietary approach to stop hypertension. Fat intake less than 25% intake with healthy servings of dairy, fruits and vegetables are recommended.


Mediterranean Diet is similar to the above dietary combinations, (with intake of olive oil and wine in moderation) and has been shown to be helpful in Alzheimers Dementia.


Renal Diet:  Avoid Salt substitutes due to the risk of elevating potassium levels.


Avoid Potassium rich foods, bananas, oranges, tomatoes, and avocados in excess.


Low Sodium intake < 2000mg a day.